Regardless of what one might think of the pepper-spray assault on UC-Davis Occupy protesters by a campus cop, read this Atlantic article detailing the utter impossibility of firing a California peace officer thanks to the Peace Officers Bill of Rights. Per the Atlantic:
As the independent investigators noted, they weren't afforded the opportunity to speak with Lt. Pike because, like his boss, he refused to participate in the inquiry, which he could do without being fired. The recommendations of the Reynoso task force and the independent investigators didn't extend to firing or disciplining anyone, for relevant personnel matters were beyond the duties given them. Moreover, their damning findings won't play any role in whether or not Lt. Pike keeps his job, or faces any disciplinary measure at all, which could remain secret.Thanks to this bill of rights, a police officer can refuse to discuss the incident at issue. The officer can only be fired or disciplined based on the internal affairs investigation. That investigation is secret. And then there is the informal code of silence and more formal union protections.